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Topics and Questions to be Examined by the Committee

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Dietary Patterns

Status All ages
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1. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed at each stage of life and growth, size, body composition, and risk of overweight and obesity?
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2. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed at each stage of life and risk of cardiovascular disease?
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3. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed at each stage of life and risk of type 2 diabetes?
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4. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed at each stage of life and risk of certain types of cancer?
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5. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed at each stage of life and bone health?
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6. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed at each stage of life and neurocognitive health?
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7. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed at each stage of life and sarcopenia?
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8. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed at each stage of life and all-cause mortality?
  Pregnancy and lactation
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9. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed during pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes?
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10. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed during pregnancy and risk of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy?
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11. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed during pregnancy and gestational age at birth?
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12. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed during pregnancy and birth weight standardized for gestational age and sex?
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13. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed during pregnancy and gestational weight gain?
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14. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed during pregnancy and micronutrient status?
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15. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed during lactation and human milk composition and quantity?
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16. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed during lactation and infant developmental milestones, including neurocognitive development?
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17. What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed during lactation and post-partum weight loss?
  Dietary patterns and nutrient requirement
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18. If nutrient needs are not met, is there evidence to support supplementation and/or consumption of fortified foods to meet nutrient adequacy?

Beverages

Status All beverages
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19. What is the relationship between beverage consumption during relevant stages of life and achieving nutrient and food group recommendations?
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20. What is the relationship between beverage consumption during relevant stages of life and growth, size, body composition, and risk of overweight and obesity?
  Alcohol 
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21. What is the relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of certain types of cancer?
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22. What is the relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of risk of cardiovascular disease?
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23. What is the relationship between alcohol consumption and neurocognitive health?
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24. What is the relationship between alcohol consumption and all- cause mortality?
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25. What is the relationship between beverage consumption during pregnancy and achieving nutrient and food group recommendations?
  Pregnancy and lactation
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26. What is the relationship between beverage consumption during pregnancy and gestational weight gain?
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27. What is the relationship between beverage consumption during pregnancy and birth weight standardized for gestational age and sex?
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28. What is the relationship between beverage consumption during lactation and achieving nutrient and food group recommendations?
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29. What is the relationship between beverage consumption during lactation and human milk composition and quantity?
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30. What is the relationship between beverage consumption during lactation and post-partum weight loss?
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31. What is the relationship between alcohol consumption during lactation and infant developmental milestones, including neurocognitive development?

Added Sugars

Status All ages
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32. What is the relationship between added sugars consumption at each stage of life and achieving nutrient and food group recommendations?
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33. What is the relationship between added sugars consumption at each stage of life and growth, size, body composition, and risk of overweight and obesity?
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34. What is the relationship between added sugars consumption at each stage of life and risk of cardiovascular disease?
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35. What is the relationship between added sugars consumption at each stage of life and risk of type 2 diabetes?

Types of Dietary Fats

Status All ages
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36. What is the relationship between types of dietary fat consumed at each stage of life and neurocognitive development (birth to 18 years) or neurocognitive health (for those 18 years and older)?
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37. What is the relationship between types of dietary fat consumed at each stage of life and risk of cardiovascular disease? 
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38. What is the relationship between types of dietary fat consumed at each stage of life and risk of certain types of cancer?
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39. What is the relationship between types of dietary fat consumed at each stage of life and all-cause mortality?

Seafood 

Status Pregnancy and lactation
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40. What is the relationship between seafood consumption during pregnancy and lactation and neurocognitive development of the infant?
  Childhood and adolescence
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41. What is the relationship between seafood consumption during childhood and adolescence (up to 18 years of age) and neurocognitive development?
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42. What is the relationship between seafood consumption during childhood and adolescence (up to 18 years of age) and risk of cardiovascular disease?

Frequency of Eating 

Status All ages
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43. What is the relationship between the frequency of eating at each stage of life and achieving nutrient and food group recommendations?
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44. What is the relationship between the frequency of eating at each stage of life and growth, size, body composition, and risk of overweight and obesity?
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45. What is the relationship between the frequency of eating at each stage of life and risk of cardiovascular disease?
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46. What is the relationship between the frequency of eating at each stage of life and risk of type 2 diabetes?
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47. What is the relationship between the frequency of eating at each stage of life and all-cause mortality?

Birth to 24 Months

Status Recommended duration of exclusive human milk and/or infant formula feeding
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48. What is the relationship between the duration of exclusive human milk and/or infant formula consumption and growth, size, and body composition?
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49. What is the relationship between the duration of exclusive human milk and/or infant formula consumption and food allergies and atopic allergic diseases?
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50. What is the relationship between the duration of exclusive human milk and/or infant formula consumption and long-term health outcomes?
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51. What is the relationship between the duration of exclusive human milk and/or infant formula consumption and micronutrient status?
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52. What is the relationship between the duration of exclusive human milk and/or infant formula consumption and developmental milestones, including neurocognitive development?
  Frequency and volume of human milk and/or infant formula feeding 
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53. What is the relationship between the frequency and volume of human milk and/or infant formula consumption and micronutrient status?
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54. What is the relationship between the frequency and volume of human milk and/or infant formula consumption and growth, size, and body composition?
  Dietary supplements (iron, vitamin D, vitamin B12, omega-3 fatty acids) 
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55. What is the relationship between specific nutrients from supplements and/or fortified foods consumed during infancy and toddlerhood and nutrient status?
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56. What is the relationship between specific nutrients from supplements and/or fortified foods consumed during infancy and toddlerhood and growth, size, and body composition?
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57. What is the relationship between specific nutrients from supplements and/or fortified foods consumed during infancy and toddlerhood and bone health?
  Complementary foods and beverages
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58. What is the relationship between complementary feeding (timing of introduction, types, and amounts) and micronutrient status?
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59. What is the relationship between complementary feeding (timing of introduction, types, and amounts) and growth, size, and body composition?
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60. What is the relationship between complementary feeding (timing of introduction, types, and amounts) and developmental milestones, including neurocognitive development?
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61. What is the relationship between complementary feeding (timing of introduction, types, and amounts) and food allergies and atopic allergic diseases?
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62. What is the relationship between complementary feeding (timing of introduction, types, and amounts) and bone health?
  Dietary patterns
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63. If nutrient needs are not met, is there evidence to support supplementation and/or consumption of fortified foods to meet nutrient adequacy?
  Dietary supplements (iron, folate, vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, iodine, and nutrients of public health concern) 
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64. What is the relationship between specific nutrients from supplements and/or fortified foods consumed before and during pregnancy and lactation and micronutrient status?
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65. What is the relationship between specific nutrients from supplements and/or fortified foods consumed before and during pregnancy and lactation and risk of gestational diabetes?
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66. What is the relationship between specific nutrients from supplements and/or fortified foods consumed before and during pregnancy and lactation and risk of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy?
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67. What is the relationship between specific nutrients from supplements and/or fortified foods consumed before and during pregnancy and lactation and human milk composition and quantity?
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68. What is the relationship between specific nutrients from supplements and/or fortified foods consumed before and during pregnancy and lactation and developmental milestones, including neurocognitive development?
  Diet during pregnancy and lactation and risk of food allergy in the infant 
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69. What is the relationship between maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation and risk of infant and child food allergies and atopic allergic diseases?

Current dietary intake and nutrients of public health concern

Status All ages
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70. For each stage of life, current dietary patterns and beverage consumption
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71. For each stage of life, current intakes of food groups and nutrients
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72. For each stage of life, nutrients of public health concern
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73. For each stage of life, prevalence of nutrition-related chronic health conditions
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74. How does dietary intake, particularly dietary patterns, track across life stages from the introduction of foods, into childhood, and through older adulthood?

Frequency of eating

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75. What is the relationship between the frequency of eating (such as meals per day, snacking, and fasting) at each stage of life and achieving nutrient and food group recommendations?

Beverages

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76. What is the relationship between beverage consumption (such as cow’s milk, milk alternatives, water, 100% fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, beverages with high-intensity sweeteners (known as artificial sweeteners), caffeinated beverages, and alcohol) during relevant stages of life and achieving nutrient and food group recommendations?

Added Sugars

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77. What is the relationship between added sugars consumption at each stage of life and achieving nutrient and food group recommendations?

Current dietary intake and nutrients of public health concern

Status Birth - 24 months
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78. Can USDA Food Patterns be established based on the relationships identified?
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79. If so, how well do USDA Food Pattern variations meet nutrient recommendations for infants and toddlers?
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80. If nutrient needs are not met, is there evidence to support supplementation and/or consumption of fortified foods to meet nutrient adequacy?
  Ages 2 years and older
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81. Are changes to the USDA Food Patterns needed based on the relationships identified?
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82. If so, how well do USDA Food Pattern variations meet nutrient recommendations for each stage of life?
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83. If nutrient needs are not met, is there evidence to support supplementation and/or consumption of fortified foods to meet nutrient adequacy?
  All Ages
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84. How much added sugars can be accommodated in a healthy diet at each stage of life while still meeting food group and nutrient needs?