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Work Under Way

Question

What is the relationship between the duration, frequency, and volume of exclusive human milk and/or infant formula consumption and micronutrient status?

Approach to Answering the Question
NESR Systematic Review

Subcommittee
Birth to 24 Months Subcommittee

Systematic Review Protocol
Developed for each scientific question being examined, the protocol describes the plan for how the systematic review was conducted. The protocol provides the: 

  • Analytic framework, 
  • Literature search and screening plan, and 
  • Literature search and screening results. 

See the full protocol for the question, what is the relationship between the duration, frequency, and volume of exclusive human milk and/or infant formula consumption and micronutrient status? 

View Full Protocol

Draft Conclusion Statement

The draft conclusion statements listed below describe the state of the science related to the specific question examined. Draft conclusions are not considered final until they have been deliberated with and decided upon by the full Committee and published in the Committee’s final advisory report. Individual conclusion statements should not be interpreted as dietary guidance or the Committee’s overarching advice to the Departments. 

Ever vs Never Consuming Human Milk

Moderate evidence indicates that ever, compared with never, consuming human milk may be associated with fatty acid status from birth to 24 months. However, the difference in fatty acid status between infants fed human milk and infants fed infant formula is likely to depend on the composition of the human milk and infant formula consumed. Grade: Moderate

Insufficient evidence is available to determine the relationship between ever, compared with never, consuming human milk and iron and zinc status from birth to 24 months. No evidence is available to determine the relationship between ever, compared with never, consuming human milk and iodine, vitamin B12, and vitamin D status from birth to 24 months. Grade: Grade Not Assignable

Duration of Any Human Milk Consumption Among Infants Fed Human Milk

Insufficient evidence is available to determine the relationship between the duration of any human milk consumption, among infants fed human milk, and iron, zinc, vitamin D, and fatty acid status from birth to 24 months. No evidence is available to determine the relationship between the duration of any human milk consumption, among infants fed human milk, and iodine or vitamin B12 status from birth to 24 months. Grade: Grade Not Assignable

Duration of Exclusive Human Milk Consumption Prior to the Introduction of Infant Formula

Insufficient evidence is available to determine the relationship between the duration of exclusive human milk consumption prior to the introduction of infant formula and fatty acid status. Grade: Grade Not Assignable

No evidence is available to determine the relationship between the duration of exclusive human milk consumption prior to the introduction of infant formula and iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin B12, or vitamin D status from birth to 24 months. Grade: Grade Not Assignable

Intensity, Proportion, or Amount of Human Milk Consumed by Mixed-Fed Infants

No evidence is available to determine the relationship between the intensity, proportion, or amount of human milk consumed by mixed-fed infants and iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, or fatty acid status from birth to 24 months. Grade: Grade Not Assignable