Skip to main content

Work Under Way

Question

What is the relationship between the duration, frequency, and volume of exclusive human milk and/or infant formula consumption and growth, size, and body composition?

Approach to Answering the Question
NESR Systematic Review

Subcommittee
Birth to 24 Months Subcommittee

Systematic Review Protocol
Developed for each scientific question being examined, the protocol describes the plan for how the systematic review was conducted. The protocol provides the: 

  • Analytic framework, 
  • Literature search and screening plan, and 
  • Literature search and screening results. 

See the full protocol for the question, What is the relationship between the duration, frequency, and volume of exclusive human milk and/or infant formula consumption and growth, size, and body composition? 

View Full Protocol

Draft Conclusion Statement

The draft conclusion statements listed below describe the state of the science related to the specific question examined. Draft conclusions are not considered final until they have been deliberated with and decided upon by the full Committee and published in the Committee’s final advisory report. Individual conclusion statements should not be interpreted as dietary guidance or the Committee’s overarching advice to the Departments.

Ever vs Never Consuming Human Milk

Moderate evidence from observational studies indicates that ever, compared with never, consuming human milk is associated with lower risk of overweight and obesity at 2 years of age and older, particularly if the duration of human milk consumption is 6 months or longer. Grade: Moderate

Duration of Any Human Milk Consumption Among Infants Fed Human Milk

Insufficient evidence is available to determine the relationship between the duration of any human milk consumption, among infants fed human milk, and overweight and obesity at 2 years of age and older; the available evidence was inconsistent. Grade: Grade Not Assignable

Duration of Exclusive Human Milk Consumption Prior to the Introduction of Infant Formula

Insufficient evidence is available to determine the relationship between the duration of exclusive human milk consumption prior to the introduction of infant formula and overweight and obesity at 2 years of age and older. Grade: Grade Not Assignable

Intensity, Proportion, or Amount of Human Milk Consumed by Mixed-Fed Infants

No evidence is available to determine the relationship between the intensity, proportion, or amount of human milk consumed by mixed-fed infants and overweight and obesity at 2 years of age and older. Grade: Grade Not Assignable

Intensity, Proportion, or Amount of Human Milk Consumed at the Breast vs by Bottle in Infants Fed Human Milk as their Only Source of Milk

No evidence is available to determine the relationship between the intensity, proportion, or amount of human milk consumed at the breast vs by bottle in infants fed human milk as their only source of milk and overweight and obesity at 2 years of age and older. Grade: Grade Not Assignable

Consuming Human Milk or Infant Formula (i.e., a Single Substance) vs Human Milk and Infant Formula (i.e., Both Substances) During a Single Feeding Session 

No evidence is available to determine the relationship between consuming human milk or infant formula (i.e., a single substance) vs human milk and infant formula (i.e., both substances, e.g., “topping up”) during a single feeding session and overweight and obesity at 2 years of age and older. Grade: Grade Not Assignable