What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed and all-cause mortality?
Approach to Answering the Question
NESR Systematic Review
Dietary Patterns Subcommittee
Systematic Review Protocol
Developed for each scientific question being examined, the protocol describes the plan for how the systematic review was conducted. The protocol provides the:
- Analytic framework,
- Literature search and screening plan, and
- Literature search and screening results.
Draft Conclusion Statement
The draft conclusion statements listed below describe the state of the science related to the specific question examined. Draft conclusions are not considered final until they have been deliberated with and decided upon by the full Committee and published in the Committee’s final advisory report. Individual conclusion statements should not be interpreted as dietary guidance or the Committee’s overarching advice to the Departments.
Strong evidence suggests that certain dietary patterns in adults and older adults are associated with decreased risk of all-cause mortality. These dietary patterns were characterized by intake from vegetables, legumes, fruit, nuts, whole grains, fish, lean meat or poultry, and unsaturated vegetable oils.
- Not all of these dietary patterns included animal-products. Of the dietary patterns that reported animal-products, protective associations were generally observed with relatively lower consumption of red and processed meat or meat and meat products.
- Not all of these dietary patterns reported inclusion of dairy products. Of the dietary patterns that reported dairy, protective associations were generally observed with relatively higher consumption of low-fat relative to high-fat dairy.
- Not all of these dietary patterns included refined carbohydrates/sweets as elements. Of the dietary patterns that reported these elements, protective associations were generally observed with relatively lower consumption of refined carbohydrates/sweets.
- Some of these dietary patterns also included alcoholic beverages in moderation or within specific thresholds in adults*.
Diets based on macronutrient distribution
Insufficient evidence was available to determine the relationship between macronutrient distributions with proportions of energy falling outside of the acceptable macronutrient distribution range for at least one macronutrient due to methodological limitations and inconsistent results. Grade: Grade Not Assignable
*The Committee will have a section of its report discussing additional information about alcohol consumption and health outcomes.