Describe and evaluate current intakes of food groups and nutrients.
Approach to Answering the Question
Data Analysis and Food Pattern Modeling Cross-Cutting Working Group
Data Analysis Protocol
Developed for each scientific question being examined, the protocol describes the plan for how the data analysis will be conducted. The protocol provides the:
- Analytic framework,
- Analytic plan, and
- Analysis results.
For this question, food group intakes will be described and evaluated in the following ways:
- Mean intakes of food groups and subgroups
- Usual intake distributions of food groups and subgroups
- Food category sources of food group intakes
- Current food group intakes compared to existing food group recommendations
- Changes in food group intakes over time
- Prevalence of reported food groups and subgroups for infants and toddlers (ages birth <24 months)
In addition, nutrient intakes will be described and evaluated in the following ways:
- Mean intakes of nutrients from foods and beverages
- Mean intakes of nutrients from foods, beverages and dietary supplements
- Usual intake distribution of nutrients from foods and beverage
- Usual intake distribution of nutrients from foods, beverages and dietary supplements
- Current nutrient intakes from foods and beverage compared to Dietary Reference Intakes
- Food category sources of nutrient intakes, limited to nutrients of public health concern
- Changes in nutrient intakes over time, limited to nutrients of public health concern
Note: The analytic plan for infants and toddlers is still in development. The analytic plan for ages 2+ is being implemented.
Draft Conclusion Statement
The draft conclusion statements listed below describe the state of the science related to the specific question examined. Draft conclusions are not considered final until they have been deliberated with and decided upon by the full Committee and published in the Committee’s final advisory report. Individual conclusion statements should not be interpreted as dietary guidance or the Committee’s overarching advice to the Departments.
For Americans ages 2 years and older, intakes of fruit, vegetables, dairy, and whole grains are generally below recommended amounts, and intakes of total grains and total protein foods generally meet or exceed recommended amounts for most age and sex groups. Intakes of solid fats and added sugars are above recommended levels for all age and sex groups. Patterns of food group intake have not changed over time.
Breastfeeding initiation rates are high, but exclusive breastfeeding past 3 months and any duration at 6 months is 57%, with notable differences observed by race and ethnicity. Complementary foods and beverages (CFB) are introduced <6 months of age for a majority of infants. The timing of introduction, intake patterns, and amount of energy provided by CFB differ by primary feeding mode among infants 6 to 12 months of age (i.e. human milk-fed when compared with infant formula or mixed-fed). Patterns of food group intakes and sources of food groups among ages 12 to 24 months are similar to that of the U.S. population, ages 2 years and older. There is a substantial increase in the intake of added sugars when those age 1 year are compared with those <12 months.
Most pregnant women consume diets low in fruits, vegetables (particularly dark green and red/orange varieties), dairy, and whole grains and high in added sugars and saturated/solid fats. Almost half of pregnant women have low intakes of total protein foods. Intake of seafood and plant-based sources of protein are relatively low among pregnant women.
Most lactating women consume diets that are low in fruit, vegetables (particularly red/orange vegetables), whole grains, and dairy, and are high in added sugars and solid fats. Nearly 1 in 6 lactating women consumes total protein foods in amounts less than the amounts recommended in the USDA Food Patterns.