What is the relationship between beverage consumption and achieving nutrient and food group recommendations?
Approach to Answering the Question
Data Analysis and Food Pattern Modeling Cross-Cutting Working Group
Data Analysis Protocol
Developed for each scientific question being examined, the protocol describes the plan for how the data analysis will be conducted. The protocol provides the:
- Analytic framework,
- Analytic plan, and
- Analysis results.
The relationship between beverage consumption and achieving food group and nutrient recommendations will be evaluated in the following ways:
Beverage category contributions to food groups and nutrients
- Average contribution of food group and nutrients per 8 oz of each discrete beverage type
- Beverage contribution as a percent of total daily energy and selected dietary components
- Energy (and percent of energy from macronutrients)
- Macro/Micro nutrients, limited to nutrients of public health concern
- Other food components: e.g. added sugars, caffeine
- Percent of daily beverage calories by discrete beverage type
- Consumption prevalence of cow’s milk and milk alternative beverages
- Prevalence of nutritionally fortified beverages consumption
Note: Alcohol is a part of total beverage consumption that will be addressed in a separate protocol “What is the relationship between alcohol consumption and achieving nutrient and food group recommendations?”
Draft Conclusion Statement
The draft conclusion statements listed below describe the state of the science related to the specific question examined. Draft conclusions are not considered final until they have been deliberated with and decided upon by the full Committee and published in the Committee’s final advisory report. Individual conclusion statements should not be interpreted as dietary guidance or the Committee’s overarching advice to the Departments.
Beverages are diverse in their contribution to food groups and dietary components. Selection of beverage choice can contribute positively to food groups currently consumed in amounts below recommendations (i.e., dairy, fruit), nutrients that are under consumed (e.g., potassium, calcium, vitamin D), and dietary components that exceed recommended limits (i.e., added sugars).
Plain fluid milk, plain calcium fortified soy beverage, and 100% juice contribute to meeting food group and nutrient needs without contributing energy from added sugars. Coffee, without additions of added sugars is a notable source of potassium for adults.
Beverages account for 13 to 16 percent of total daily energy intake in children and adolescents, 18 percent of total daily energy intake for adults ages 20 to 64 years, and 13 percent of total daily energy intake for adults 65 and older. Beverage’s contribution to added sugars intake is 32 percent for young children and 49 percent for adolescents. Among adults, beverages contribute 58 percent of added sugars intakes for adults 20 to 64 years and 35 percent of added sugars intakes for adults 65 and older.
The top beverage sources of added sugars are regular soft drinks, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, smoothies, and coffee and tea inclusive of added sugars.